About of Uzbekistan

Geographical location

The Republic of Uzbekistan is located in Central Asia. According to natural and geographical conditions Uzbekistan is one of the most favorable regions in Central Asia. The territory of Uzbekistan is a peculiar combination of plains and mountain terrain.

Most of the territory of Uzbekistan is occupied by plains (about four-fifths of the territory). One of the main is Turanian plain. The east and northeast of the country are situated spurs of the Tien Shan and the Pamir mountains, here is the highest point in the country (4643 m). In the north central part of the territory of Uzbekistan is one of the largest deserts in the world - the Kyzyl Kum, west - the Karakum.


The mountains and foothills are about 1/5 part of the country. The east of the country is dominated by middle and high landforms. within the republic. Within the territory of the country there are the slopes or the closure of the West Tien Shan (Ugam, Pskem, Chatkalskiy, Kurama) and the Pamir-Alai (Zeravshan, Turkestan, Hissar, Kugitangtau Baysuntau). To the south and west, they gradually fall and into the plains. Stretch between mountains large cavities: Kashkadarya, Surkhandarya, Zarafshan, Samarkand are located. The largest intermountain trough - Ferghana hollow (valley) - lenght 370 kilometers and width up to 190 kilometers. On three sides of it are surrounded by the mountain ranges and is opened only from the west. On the border with Afghanistan is a vast Amu-Darya basin.

 

 

Territory

The Republic of Uzbekistan is situated between the rivers Amu Darya and Syr Darya, and covers an area of 448.9 sq. km. The length of the territory of the Republic from west to east is 1 425 km from north to south - 930 km.

The territory in the north and north-east of the Rebublic of Uzbekistan borders with Kazakhstan, in the east and south-east with Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan in the west with Turkmenistan, in the south with Afghanistan. The total length of the country border is 6 221 km. The long border with Afghanistan is 137 km, with Kazakhstan - 2 203 km, with Kyrgyzstan - 1 099 km, with Tajikistan - 1 161 km and Turkmenistan - 1 621 km. 

 

History

The Uzbek people is one of the oldest nations in the world and has almost 3000 year old history of statehood. Archaeological finds in the territories monuments Selengur, Kulbulak Teshiktash and prove that the first human settlement on the territory of Uzbekistan were more 1-1.2 million years ago.

Ancient Khorezm and Bactria are early states on the territory of Uzbekistan, during the formation of which is accounted for VIII-VII centuries. BC. Monuments Afrasiyab, Kuzalikir, Uzunkir, Yerkurgan can serve as an example of urban culture. One of the monotheistic religions - Zoroastrianism originated in the territory of Uzbekistan. Avesta - the holy book of Zoroastrianism is the spiritual heritage of the Uzbek people.

In VI-IV centuries. BC on the territory of Central Asia invaded Aheminidy, then the Greco-Macedonians. Against foreign invaders fought such patriots as Tumaris, Chirac and Spitamen.

History of Uzbek statehood during its continuous development was the period of greatest prosperity and greatness. In the III. BC - III in. AD on the territory of Uzbekistan prospered states like Davan, Kang, Kushan and Khorezm. The most prominent is the development of culture and art in the period of the Kushan state.

In the early Middle Ages on the territory of Uzbekistan was ruled state Hionidov, Kidaritov, Eftalits and Turk Empire. During this period, the data of the state, includes a huge territory, conducted a large-scale economic and trade policies with neighboring states.

In VIII- IX centuries. To the territory of Uzbekistan with the Arab conquest and penetrate new cultural branch. Along with the struggle against the invaders, material and spiritual losses to the IX-XII centuries. is the formation of the Uzbek people. During this period, the Turkish language has taken a dominant position, and began the formation of the literary language.

In the IX-XII centuries. During the reign of Samanids Karakhanids Khorezm and there have been some positive changes in chatnosti and cultural life. In the good of the country and the people worked such great scientists as Al-Khwarizmi, Ahmad al-Fargani, Farabi, Abu Rayhan Biruni, Abu Ali ibn Sina, al-Zamakhshari and others. Also in the development of religious sciences have made a valuable contribution to the Imam al-Bukhari, al-Tirmidhi, Nazhmuddinov Kubra Bahavuddin Naqshband and others.

The beginning of the XIII century. Mongols, led by Chenghis Khan, defeating state of Khorezm, conquered all the teritory of Central Asia. The brave sons of our motherland - Jaloliddin Manguberdi, Temur Malik and others were incessant war, defending his people from foreign invaders.

 

The second half of the XIV century. In the political arena appears Amir Temur, who spoke against the Mongols and eventually drove them out of the territory of our country. Centralized state during the period of Amir Temur enabled vsestoronnimu prosperity, especially in the economic, social and cultural life of the country. Amir Temur creating a centralized state, the state apparatus has streamlined management, strengthened the borders of the state, the army strengthened, improved socio-economic life of the population, created the conditions for protsvitaniya crafts and trade, reform the tax system, priuspel in international diplomacy. During the reign of Ulugbek, Husain Baykara and Zakhiriddin Babur flourished science, literature and the Arts. It was during this period of Alisher Navoi created their works in the Turkic language and made its contribution to the development neisporimy spiritual heritage of the Uzbek people.

With the policy of Amir Temur put an end to the Mongol conquest campaigns, and many people have been released from the Mongol yoke. Its policy pedotvratila Ottoman conquest of Europe. During the period of Amir Temur intensified trade and diplomatic relations with the European states.

In XVI-XVII century. On the territory of Uzbekistan and the right of states Sheibanids Ashtarkhanids. During the period of decline occurs Ashtarkhanids centralized state, which leads to fragmentation. As a result, in a XVIII. formed Emirate of Bukhara, Khiva and Kokand khanate.

As a result of conquest campaigns of the Russian Empire in Central Asia, our country in the second half of the XIX century. until 1991 was part of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union.

At the beginning the 80s of the twentieth century political and economic crisis made it possible to accelerate the movement for independence in Uzbekistan. As a result of a long historical August 31, 1991 under the leadership of Islam Karimov has achieved national independence.

Gaining independence Uzbekistan took place in a difficult political and socio-economic conditions. Since over 130 years, dominated the colonial regime made it impossible for the independent development of the Republic.

Declaration of independence has put before the people and the country's leadership task of fundamental reforms. As a result of internal and external conducted by the government led by Islam Karimov of Uzbekistan has been recognized by the international community as an independent state. Within a short time determined Uzbekistan's own model of development.

Developed and implemented by President Islam Karimov "The Uzbek model" of development paves the way for socio-economic development of the country. In a short time was provided grain and oil independence. Uzbekistan from agrarian and raw material of the country has become a rapidly growing, exporting modern technology country. The correctness of the chosen path of development of Uzbekistan confirmed and began in 2008 the global financial and economic crisis. "Uzbek model" has successfully weathered the crisis, deservedly received high positive ratings from international financial organizations and experts.

Historical experience shows that no country can develop in isolation from the world community. As a result of a balanced foreign policy, Uzbekistan has been recognized by more than 180 countries and with more than 130 countries established diplomatic relations. The Republic of Uzbekistan is a member of such authoritative international organizations as the UN, CIS, SCO and others.

To date, Uzbekistan has bilateral and mutually beneficial cooperation in the economic, political and cultural spheres with countries such as Austria, Great Britain, Germany, Greece, Indonesia, Iran, Spain, Italy, Canada, China, Malaysia, South Korea, Russia, the USA, Thailand Turkey, France, Czech Republic, Switzerland, Sweden.

In accordance with the Constitution of Uzbekistan ensured equality of citizens regardless of their ethnic, linguistic and religious identity. Currently in the country in accordance inhabited by more than one hundred nations and nationalities, for which all the necessary conditions. Operate in Uzbekistan Republican International Center, as well as more than a hundred national cultural centers.

            Results of socio-economic development of the Republic of Uzbekistan for the first half-year 2016

Consistent implementation of the most important priorities of economic program for the year 2016, set by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov at the session of the government of the Republic on 15 January of the current year, has allowed to preserve sustainable high rates of economic growth of the Republic in the first half the current year.

I. Deepening structural reforms in the economy and modernizing the country, ensuring macroeconomic balance

Consistent implementation of the most important priorities of economic program for the year 2016, set by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov at the session of the government of the Republic on 15 January of the current year, has allowed to preserve sustainable high rates of economic growth of the Republic in the first half the current year.

Compared to the first half of 2015, gross domestic product increased by 7.8%, industry – by 6.7%, agriculture – by 6.8%, retail trade turnover – 14.1%.

Implementation of active investment policy aimed at modernization, technical and technological renewal of production, development of transport and communication infrastructure contributed to the growth of volumes of utilized capital investments by 11.8%, and the contract construction works – by 17.5%.

The establishment of 6.5 thousand objects since the beginning of the year, in the framework of the Programme for development of services for 2016-2020, contributed to the growth of services by 12.9% and their share in GDP from 57.1% in the first half of 2015 to 57.6%.

High rates of economic growth have been achieved while maintaining macroeconomic balance, which in turn contributed to a positive balance of foreign trade turnover, state budget surplus in the amount of 0.1% to GDP and low inflation at 2.5 percent.

The main indicators of socio-economic development of the Republic of Uzbekistan for the I half of 2016

(in % against similar period of 2015)

Indicator

Growth rate

Gross domestic product

107,8

Industry

106,7

Retail turnover

114,1

Construction works

117,5

Volume of utilized investments

111,8

Agriculture, forestry and fisheries

106,8

Total services

112,9

The share of manufacturing industries in the structure of industries increased from 77.5% in the same period of 2015 to 78.6%, which provided some 80% growth for the whole industry in the I half of this year.

Qualitative changes in the structure of the industry indicate the effectiveness of the implementation of the Programme of measures on structural reforms, modernization and diversification of production for 2015-2019. In particular, the high growth rate of industrial production was recorded in sectors producing goods based on deep processing of raw materials, including chemical products, rubber and plastic products –129.9%, textiles, apparel and leather products – 116.6%, food – 113.9%, pharmaceutical products and medicines – 124%, building materials – 113.9%.

This resulted in a significant growth of products with high added value, including polyethylene, polypropylene, production of household chemicals, seed drills, centrifugal pumps, finished textile products, medicines and other finished products.

The production of 36 new types and 45 new models of finished sewing and knitting products, 69 new kinds of confectionery products, fruit and vegetable canning products, meat and dairy products, 60 kinds of new drugs have been mastered since the beginning of the year. A 1.3 time growth of loan funds allocated by commercial banks for the purchase of technological equipment and replenishment of working capital of enterprises – manufacturers of consumer products, contributed to the expansion of the range of finished consumer goods.

More than 35 new types of industrial products have been mastered by the enterprises included in the Localization programme, including petrochemical equipment, electric furnaces, electric water heaters, exercise equipment, children's bikes and scooters, speedometers for vehicles and other types of finished products. Overall, localized products worth over 2.3 trillion soums have been produced since the beginning of the year under the Program of localization of production of finished goods, components and materials for 2015-2019. The growth compared to the same period of 2015 made up 1.5 times, the estimated effect of import substitution made up $795 million.

The implementation of active investment policy contributed to the deepening of structural reforms, modernization and diversification of the industry. 43 production facilities with a total value of $ 1.9 billion were commissioned in the first half of the current year in the framework of the Investment program. Among major projects, it is necessary to mention the “Expansion of cement plant in Jizzakh region", "Organization of serial production of passenger cars of model "T-250" at JSC "GM Uzbekistan", "Organization of spinning production at the FE "Indorama Kokand textile" (IV stage)", "Organization of spinning production at "Fanteks” in Bulakbashi district of the Andijan region”, “Construction of Meylisay mine", "Construction of water pipeline and technical water desalination plant at ГМЗ-3", organization of production of polyethylene films and pipes at the JSC "Jizzakh plastmassa", insulation products of glass fibers and a wide range of wiring and electrical products on the territory of Jizzakh FIZ and others. Simultaneously, the implementation of 72 new major investment projects worth over $3.4 billion was launched.

8.9 thousand projects worth over 2.4 trillion soums have been implemented in the framework of territorial programs of socio-economic development of the regions, including 2.6 thousand projects in the sphere of the industry with the introduction of over 2 thousand of new capacities, expansion of capacities of 390 enterprises and modernization of 133 production facilities.

Comprehensive measures to ensure the stability of the financial and banking system contributed to conducting active investment policy. Due to them, the aggregate capital of the banks in the first half of this year increased by 23.3%, their assets by 25.1%, deposits in banks – 27.7%. As a result, the volume of lending to the economy at the expense of the commercial banks increased by 26.2%. At the same time, some 80% of all bank loans were long-term loans for investment purposes.

Out of the total capital investments utilized in the economy during the first half of this year, over 23% were utilized at the expense of foreign investments and loans, whose volume compared to the same period of the previous year grew by 17.2% and amounted to $1.8 billion, with direct foreign investments amounting to $1.2 billion. The volume of funds utilized at the expense of the Fund for reconstruction and development of Uzbekistan towards financing large investment projects in strategic sectors of the economy increased by 6.9% and exceeded $ 240 million.

Over 51% of utilized capital investments accounted for the investments at the expense of own funds of enterprises and population, resulted from the engagement of additional internal resources for the implementation of active investment policy, as well as implementation of measures to stimulate the growth in business revenues and improving living conditions and quality of life of the population.

As a result of implementation of projects on modernization, technical and technological renewal of the industry, as well as the Programme of measures to reduce energy consumption, implement energy saving technologies in industries and the social sector for 2015-2019, the cost of the produced by large enterprises products has been reduced by an average of 9.8%, electricity consumption on average of 265.6 thousand kW.h. per year, GDP energy consumption overall by 7.6%.

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